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Luyten, P, van Houdenhove  B, Lemma , A, Target M, Fonagy, P.,  A mentalization-based approach to the understanding and treatment of functional somatic disorders
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy,Vol. 26, No. 2, June 2012, 121–140


Patients with functional somatic disorders (FSD) represent a sizeable group in our health care system. FSD are associated with high health care use and considerable personal and economic costs. Evidence-based treatments for FSD are only modestly effective in a large subgroup of patients, particularly in the long run, which emphasizes the need to develop more effective treatments rooted in extant knowledge about the nature of FSD. This paper presents a

contemporary psychodynamic perspective on the conceptualization and treatment of patients with FSD rooted in attachment and mentalization theory. First, we review animal and human research demonstrating the close

relationships among attachment, stress regulation, and immune and pain-regulating systems. We highlight research findings concerning the high interpersonal and metabolic costs associated with the use of insecure secondary attachment strategies (i.e. attachment deactivating and hyperactivating strategies) leading to increased vulnerability for stress. Next, we review evidence for the role of impairments in (embodied) mentalization in patients

with FSD both as cause and consequence of functional somatic complaints, leading to the re-emergence of so-called non-mentalizing modes, i.e. modes of subjectivity that antedate the capacity for full mentalizing. Based on these

views, a novel brief psychodynamic intervention for  patients with functional somatic complaints is presented.

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